Lexicon for the Series of More-Than-Human Encounters

Ce lexique est conçu comme un outil pour la série de conférences intitulée More-Than-Human-Encounters. Il contient des mots et des concepts de la terminologie complexe utilisée dans les conférences de cette série. Il s’agit d’une liste évolutive : à chaque conférence, nous filtrons de nouveaux termes et les ajoutons au lexique. Puisque toutes les conférences sont données en anglais, nous avons opté pour un lexique anglophone.

Les encyclopédies publiques fournissent beaucoup d’explications des termes et des concepts que les intervenants utiliseront, mais dans la mesure du possible, nous leur demanderons d’en donner leur propre définition. Ceci est un lexique d’apprentissage : si vous avez des suggestions pour une meilleure description, n’hésitez pas à contacter Goedele.Nuyttens@vub.be ou Eva.Decaesstecker@kaaitheater.be

 

A

Agential being/agency: the potential of doing something or acting upon something.

Agroecology: an applied science that studies ecological processes applied to agricultural production systems.

A.I.: Artificial Intelligence: intelligence demonstrated by machines unlike the natural intelligence displayed by humans and animals, which involves consciousness and emotionality.

Animal liberation: a social movement which seeks an end to the moral and legal distinction drawn between human and non-human animals, an end to the status of animals as property, and an end to their use in the research, food, clothing, and entertainment industries.

Animality studies: an interdisciplinary academic field focused on the cultural study of animals and animality.

Animal sentience: what non-human animals feel, perceive, or experience subjectively.

Animal welfare: the well-being of non-human animals.

Anthropocene: the current geological age, viewed as the period during which human activity has been the dominant influence on climate and the environment.

Anthropocentric: ethical paradigm in which humans are the only valuable beings (i.e. everything else is measured in terms of its value to humans).

Anthropos: the problematic and particular conception of the standard, rational (and arguably white and male) ‘human subject’ as the centre around which others’ struggle for full legal recognition (can be read as a critique on the previous two terms).

Astrology: a pseudoscience that involves the forecasting of earthly and human events through the observation and interpretation of the fixed stars, the sun, the moon, and the planets.

 

B

Beingness: see Legal beingness

Biodiversity: the variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is typically a measure of variation at the genetic, species, and ecosystem level.

 

C

Civil code: instrument with the codification of private law in continental civil law countries.

Civil law: legal system of most continental European countries, characterized by statutory codification.

Common law: legal system of Anglo-American countries, characterized by judicial law-making.

Chromatogram: the visual output of the chromatograph, the instrument to do chromatography. Chromatography is a physical method of separation that distributes components to separate between two phases, one stationary (stationary phase), the other (the mobile phase) moving in a definite direction.

Climate justice: a term used to frame global warming as an ethical and political issue, rather than one that is purely environmental or physical in nature. This is done by relating the causes and effects of climate change to concepts of justice, particularly environmental justice and social justice.

Conservationism: the conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources, including animal and plant species as well as their habitat for the future.

 

E

Ecocide: criminalized human activity that violates the principles of environmental justice, as by substantially damaging or destroying ecosystems or by harming the health and well-being of a species (including humans).

Eurocentrism: a worldview that is centered on Western civilization or a biased view that favors it over non-Western civilizations.

 

F

Food forest: the oldest form of agriculture, located at the edge of a forest, where biodiversity is at its highest.

 

G

Geographic regions: in geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography).

 

H

Habitat: the array of resources, physical and biotic factors that are present in an area, such as to support the survival and reproduction of a particular species.

 

I

Indigenous: produced, growing, living, or occurring natively or naturally in a particular region or environment.

Instrumental value: value measured in terms of the use of something for others (usually humans).

Intersectionality: an analytical framework for understanding how aspects of a person's social and political identities combine to create different modes of discrimination and privilege. These intersecting and overlapping social identities may be both empowering and oppressing.

Intrinsic legal relevance: relevance to law without the need to express it in terms of human interests.

Intrinsic value: value that something has for its own sake, independent of use-value for others.

Invasive alien species: label for animals, plants or other organisms introduced directly or indirectly by people into places out of their natural range of distribution, generating an impact on local ecosystems and species.

 

J

Jurisdiction: the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice, as defined by the kind of case, and the location of the issue.

 

L

Legal beingness: proposed legal status for animals that is based in vulnerability and embodiment (proposed by Maneesha Deckha).

Legal person: central unit of law, rights-and-duties bearing entity.

Legal thing: object of law, entity over which rights extend.

 

M

Metabolism: the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are: the conversion of food to energy; the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates; and the elimination of metabolic wastes.

More-than-human: non-humans in a multispecies anthropological approach.

Multidirectional learning: a teaching and learning style that focuses on the many interactions that happen between individuals in an educational environment. Using this approach, learning takes place in three ways: learner-to-learner, teacher-to-learner and learner-to-teacher.

 

O

Ontology: the branch of philosophy that studies concepts such as existence, being, becoming, and reality.

 

P

Permaculture: a global and systemic concept to create ecosystems, while respecting biodiversity.

Phenomenology: the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness. It attempts to create conditions for the objective study of topics usually regarded as subjective: consciousness and the content of conscious experiences such as judgements, perceptions, and emotions.

Philanthropist: someone who voluntarily organizes efforts for socially useful purposes. 

Praxis: the process by which a theory, lesson, or skill is enacted, embodied, or realized. It can also mean the act of engaging, applying, exercising, realizing, or practicing ideas.

Property: any right or interest in or to property of any kind whatsoever, whether real, personal or mixed and whether tangible or intangible.

 

R

Radical observation: a methodology by Debra Solomon/Urbaniahoeve that teaches natural world awareness towards ecosystem stewardship. The technique focuses attention on processes occurring over time; i.e. plants growing throughout seasons, plant communities wandering through space, habitats accommodating ever more plant and animal life.

Rational being: beings endowed with the faculty of reason.

Regeneration: the process of renewal, restoration, and tissue growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage.

 

S

Sentient being: a being with the capacity to feel, perceive, or experience subjectively. The prevailing scientific view today is that sentience is generated by specialized neural structures and processes – neuroanatomical, neurochemical, and neurophysiological.

Speciesism: the differing treatment or moral consideration of individuals based on their species membership.

Stakeholder: an actor, individual or collective (in a group or organisation), who is actively or passively concerned/involved by a decision or a project. 

Standing: ability to initiate legal proceedings.

 

T

Terra nullius: a Latin expression meaning ‘nobody's land’. It was a principle sometimes used in international law to justify claims that territory may be acquired by a state's occupation of it.

 

U

Umwelt: perceptual world in which an organism exists and acts as a subject.

UNCAHP: United Nations Convention for Animal Health and Protection.

 

V

Vulnerability studies: the study to analyse the inability (of a system or a unit) to withstand the effects of a hostile environment. Vulnerability research covers a complex, multidisciplinary field including development and poverty studies, public health, climate studies, security studies, engineering, geography, political ecology, and disaster risk management.

 

Z

Zoöcratic spaces: spaces where the more-than-human also has agency.

Zoönomy: term used by zoöps to indicate the quality of life of a whole human and non-human multispecies community. Zoönomy is centered around ecological aspects, but includes economic, social, legal, aesthetic and political qualities and relations. In the practice of zoönomy all these relations are considered to be part of the same sphere, and to matter to each other.

Zoöp: a new form of organisation in which humans and non-humans become collaborators within an organization. The zoöp contributes to a stronger social and legal position for nonhumans within society and works possible towards a practice of reciprocal ecological-economic growth that is an alternative to the extractivist dynamics of capitalism. (proposed by Klaus Kuitenbrouwer)